The ADAPT Practitioner Training Program enrollment is now open.Learn More

Functional Medicine and Diabetes: How to Treat the Root Cause

Type 2 diabetes is a growing epidemic both in the United States and around the world. Nearly 10 percent of American adults have type 2 diabetes, and 25 percent have prediabetes; these numbers are only continuing to rise, with a shocking one-third of U.S. adults projected to have diabetes by 2050. (1,2,3)

Functional Medicine and diabetes
The Functional Medicine approach to diabetes involves addressing the root cause of the disease, instead of simply masking the symptoms. iStock/AzmanJaka

While type 2 diabetes was once considered a “disease of affluence,” its numbers are exploding in middle- and low-income countries, mainly due to the global spread of the nutrient-poor Western diet. (4) Type 2 diabetes is also no longer limited to middle-aged and older adults; children and young people are increasingly being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, significantly increasing their risks of many other chronic diseases throughout their lifespans.

The conventional medicine approach for treating type 2 diabetes, long centered around a “wait and see” mentality and drug therapy, isn’t working to stem the tide of these epidemic numbers, nor are preventive strategies emphasized.Read on to learn whyFunctional Medicine, a science-based approach to preventing and treating disease that is focused on diet and lifestyle changes, is the most effective first-line strategy for managing type 2 diabetes.

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the way the body metabolizes sugar. It is characterized by a progressive loss of sensitivity to insulin, the pancreatic hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. In the early stages of type 2 diabetes, the body produces more insulin to try to overcome reduced insulin sensitivity; however, in the long run, the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin to maintain blood sugar levels, resulting in high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress which, in turn, contributes to many of the complications of type 2 diabetes, such as kidney, nerve, retinal, and vascular damage.

Want to learn how to address the root cause of type 2 diabetes using the Functional Medicine approach? Check out this article for tips on what to eat, the nutrients you need, and lifestyle changes that can help. #functionalmedicine #chriskresser #unconventionalmedicine

什么导致2型糖尿病?

The question of why a person develops type 2 diabetes has been debated and explored for decades. For many years,饮食ary fatswere blamed for causing the disease. Next, obesity was thought to be the culprit (obesity and diabetes share so many of the same underlying causes, they’re often referred to collectively as “造纸”). However, it’s now clear that type 2 diabetes can occurin the absence of obesity. Today, we now understand that we cannot blame diabetes on any single factor.Rather, the disease process is driven by a complex network of diet and lifestyle factors, oxidative stress, and genetics.

TheWestern diet, full of refined carbohydrates, fructose, andindustrial seed oils, is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Wherever the Western diet goes, type 2 diabetes follows. For example, hunter–gatherer populations such as the Australian aborigines are typically healthy eating their traditional diets. When they are displaced and moved into urban environments, however, they replace their traditional diets with a Western one and develop diabetes at record speed. (5)

However, diet is not the only contributing factor—a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate sleep, chronic stress, gut dysfunction, and environmental toxins also play significant roles. They cause oxidative stress, damage pancreatic beta cells (responsible for making insulin), and induce cellular insulin resistance, setting the stage for serious metabolic dysfunction.

Type 2 Diabetes and Blood Sugar Levels

To successfully manage diabetes, it helps to have a basic understanding of the science behindblood sugar. When you eat carbohydrates, they are broken down in your intestine into monosaccharides, or simple sugars, the most basic unit of carbohydrates. One of these monosaccharides, glucose, is subsequently absorbed from your gut into your bloodstream, where it is shuttled to your cells by insulin.In type 2 diabetes, various factors have caused cells to become less sensitive to insulin, causing excessive glucose to accumulate in your bloodstream (the state of hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar).Blood sugar measurements are essential for assessing the progression and severity of type 2 diabetes.

Three Ways of Measuring Blood Sugar

Generally, practitioners rely on one or more of the following tests to assess blood sugar levels:

1. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG)

This test measures blood sugar after an eight- to 12-hour fast. An FBG of 126 mg/mL indicates diabetes, and the upper limit of “normal” FBG is 99 mg/dL. Any value between 99 and 126 mg/dL is indicative of prediabetes. A drawback of this test is that it does not tell us how blood sugar responds to the foods we eat.

2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

This test involves consuming 75 g of pure glucose dissolved in water and then measuring blood glucose one and two hours later. If your blood sugar is higher than 140 mg/dL two hours later, you likely have prediabetes. If it is greater than 199 mg/dL two hours later, you may have type 2 diabetes. A drawback of this test is that the large dose of glucose delivered can cause severe symptoms in people with glucose intolerance. Furthermore, glucose in foods does not generally come in the isolated form used in this test, making the OGTT an inaccurate representation of how the body responds to carbohydrate-containing foods.

3. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)

该测试测量血红蛋白的百分比由于慢性升高的血糖而粘合的血红蛋白。它在过去三个月里反映了平均血糖。HBA1C的健康范围在4.6%和5.3%之间。不幸的是,该测试在个体中可能是不可靠的,应与其他生物标志物相比,例如空腹胰岛素,空腹瘦素,HOMA-IR,果糖胺和甘油三酯。

The Conventional Approach: Why It Doesn’t Work

2型diabe的传统医学方法tes is fraught with problems.

Under the conventional system, practitioners wait until people have full-blown type 2 diabetes before initiating treatment.Little is done to alter the course of the disease in the prediabetic stage when the body is more responsive to diet and lifestyle changes.

The drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes have serious side effects.Sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, and meglitinides are just a few of the classes of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes. They are associated with liver and kidney dysfunction, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, rashes, weight gain, and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

糖尿病患者的常规饮食指南过时。美国糖尿病协会的2型糖尿病饮食指南长期促进了展示膳食脂肪的相对较高的碳水化合物摄入量。然而,丰富的研究表明,这种饮食方法不仅适用于2型糖尿病,而且可能实际上使得条件变得更糟。

Functional Medicine: An Effective Way to Prevent, Treat, and Manage Type 2 Diabetes

In contrast to conventional medicine, the Functional Medicine approach emphasizes prevention and treatment through饮食and lifestyle changes.

Adjust Your Carb Quantity and Quality

It is well established that a high-starch, low-fiber diet increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. (6)Despite this fact, conventional health experts continue to recommend a high-carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetics to achieve better results.The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that diabetics obtain 45 to 60 percent of calories from carbohydrates, while the American Dietetic Association has only recently rescinded its endorsement of high carbohydrate intake for diabetics and remains reluctant to recommend a low carb intake. (7)

Despite such foot-dragging, a growing body of scientific research indicates thatlow-carbohydrate dietsare superior to high-carbohydrate diets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials found that reducing dietary carbohydrates produces significant improvements in HbA1c, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while also lowering patients’ diabetes medication requirements. (8) Importantly, the definition of a “low-carbohydrate diet” varied across the studies included in the review; had the definition been stricter, a greater beneficial effect might have been observed.

Several large-scale studies have compared the effectiveness of low-carb diets with high-carb diets to treat diabetes.In these studies, low-carb diets consistently outperform high-carb diets for the management of type 2 diabetes.9,10) Low-carb diets produce more significant improvements in blood sugar stability and lipid profiles and significantly reduce the need for medications.

How much do you need to reduce your carbohydrate intake to get type 2 diabetes under control? While the answer to this question varies from person to person, I’ve generally found thatthose with blood sugar regulation problems benefit from limiting carb intake to 10 to 15 percent of total calories.

In addition to adjusting carb quantity, you also need to changethe quality of the carbs you consume. Instead of refined carbohydrates such as pasta and bread, eat moderate amounts of starchy tubers (sweet potatoes, cassava, beets, and rutabaga), plantains, whole fruit, and moderate amounts offull-fat dairy, if tolerated.

Determine Which Carbs Work for You

虽然在临床环境中测量血糖的方法(参见本文的早期部分),但它们没有反映您的身体如何应对食物中的葡萄糖。为了更好地了解含碳水化合物的食物您的身体最佳,哪些含有不健康的血糖摇摆,您需要在家里测试血糖。

在家测试血糖的第一步是购买血糖仪,如ReliOn Prime. You will also need to purchase glucose test strips. Once you have a glucometer and test strips, follow these steps to test your glucose tolerance in response to foods:

  1. Test your blood sugar first thing in the morning after fasting for at least 12 hours.Drink a little bit of water just after rising, but don’t eat anything or exercise before the test. The measurement you obtain at this point is your fasting blood sugar level.
  2. Test your blood sugar againjust before lunch.
  3. Eat your typical lunch and test your blood sugar one hour, two hours, and three hours after.Do not eat anything during this three-hour post-lunch period.
  4. Record your blood sugar results, along with what you ate for lunch.
  5. Repeat this practice the following day.The blood sugar measurements you gather will tell you how the foods you usually eat influence your blood sugar levels.
  6. On day three, follow steps 1 and 2. However, at step 3, instead of eating your typical lunch,consume 60 to 70 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates, such as an eight-ounce boiled potato or a cup of cooked white rice. Fast-acting carbs quickly break down and release glucose into your system. For the purposes of this test only, avoid eating any fat or protein with the potato or rice because it will delay the absorption of glucose.
  7. After your carbohydrate-rich meal on day three,record your blood sugar results.

The goal here is to make sure that your blood glucose doesn’t consistently rise higher than 140 ng/mL an hour after a meal but does steadily drop to 120 ng/mL two hours after eating and returns to baseline three hours post-meal.

至于禁食提单ood sugar, measurements in the 80s are best. However, if you see some readings in the 90s, don’t panic. If all other biomarkers (fasting insulin, fasting leptin, fructosamine, and triglycerides) are normal, this isn’t cause for concern.

Age also needs to be considered when assessing blood sugar; an FBG in the 90s is relatively normal for a 70-year-old but may be more cause for concern when observed repeatedly in someone in their twenties.

For more information on measuring your blood sugar at home, see my blog post “How to Prevent Diabetes and Heart Disease for $16.”

Think about Going Keto

Increasing numbers of people are experimenting with theketogenic dietfor the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with some strongly positive results. The ketogenic diet is a very-low-carb, moderate-protein, high-fat diet that causes the body to rely on fatty acids and ketones for fuel, rather than glucose.

研究表明,酮类饮食对2型糖尿病患者具有显着益处。已发现酮酮饮食改善HBA1C,促进体重减轻,逆转肾损伤,以及改善2型糖尿病患者的血脂和心血管健康。(11) It has also proven more successful than a conventional low-carb diet for diabetes. (12)事实上,福利是如此深刻,整个公司,Virta健康, has made a ketogenic diet the cornerstone of their novel treatment approach for type 2 diabetes. (13)

Consider Getting Rid of Gluten

In recent years, multiple studies have examined theeffects of gluten on type 2 diabetes. We know thatceliac diseaseis more common in individuals with poorly controlled diabetes than in the general population; this finding suggests that gluten may contribute to the development and progression of diabetes. (14) Furthermore, animal models of type 2 diabetes indicate that a gluten-free diet increases the functional capacity of beta cells, the pancreatic cells responsible for making insulin, and improves glucose tolerance. (15)

How does gluten contribute to diabetes?The answer lies in the damaging effects of gluten on the intestinal barrier.Gluten increases intestinal permeability, causingleaky gutand systemic inflammation; these two factors have been found to precede type 2 diabetes. Removing gluten from the diet restores intestinal barrier integrity and reduces inflammation, thereby improving insulin resistance and potentially reversing the course of diabetes. (16)

Eat More Protein

蛋白质是管理2型糖尿病的强大工具。Increasing protein intakeimproves blood sugar control and satiety (the feeling of fullness) and preserves lean body mass in diabetics. According to the research, a protein intake of 20 to 30 percent of total calories is best for optimizing type 2 diabetes management. (17)

There are still some concerns that a high protein intake can cause diabetic kidney disease. However,this myth has been disprovenmultiple times; a high protein intake does not compromise kidney function in people without preexisting kidney disease. (18)

Nine Functional Foods for Diabetes

Nature has provided us with a plentiful variety ofPaleo-friendly foodsthat can help in the treatment of diabetes, proving that food can indeed serve as medicine.

1.蓝莓

Incorporating blueberries into your diet lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes, and for those who are living with diabetes, blueberries improve glucose control. (19,20) The antidiabetic effects of blueberries are attributed to their high level of anthocyanins, chemical compounds that can exert anti-inflammatory effects in some fat cells and increase the body’s uptake and utilization of glucose.

2. Cacao

If you have type 2 diabetes, dark chocolate should be your treat of choice! Animal studies have shown that eating dark chocolate after a meal lowers blood sugar levels, while human research shows that it promotes vasodilation, enhancing the delivery of glucose to muscle cells and alleviating hyperglycemia. (21,22,23)

3. Coffee and Tea

Extensive research shows thatcoffeemay reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by combating oxidative stress and through its beneficial impact on the gut microbiota. (24). As it turns out, coffee is the largest source of dietary antioxidants in the average American’s diet.

If you’re not a fan of coffee, then green tea, which contains some of the same antioxidant compounds, is an excellent alternative. (25)

4. Fermented Foods

Could fermented foods reduce your need for diabetes medication? Emerging research suggests that it could. Fermented foods including yogurt, kefir, and kimchi have been shown to improve glucose metabolism, reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes as well as enhancing glycemic control in those with existing diabetes. (26,27,28)

5. Nuts and Seeds

Nuts offer multiple health benefits for diabetics. Daily consumption of almonds for 24 weeks has been found to reduce waist circumference, serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (a marker for inflammation), and hemoglobin A1c in adult diabetics. (29) Walnuts improve endothelial function in diabetics, thus reducing the elevated cardiovascular disease risk associated with the disease. (30)Chia Seeds降低血压,C反应蛋白和餐后高血糖。(31,32) When buying nuts, select raw or lightly roasted nuts and avoid the ones coated in industrial seed oils, such as canola oil.

6. Olive Oil

Extra-virgin olive oil consumption produces significant reductions in fasting blood glucose HbA1c. (33) It also improves the post-meal blood sugar response, which, as I mentioned earlier, is perhaps the best parameter for assessing glucose tolerance. (34)

7. Resistant Starch

抗淀粉is a type of dietary carbohydrate that is not digested in the small intestine; instead, it passes intact to the large intestine, where it promotes the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. Research has shown that resistant starch may improve insulin sensitivity and lower blood glucose. (35,36,37)

8. Seafood

Fish and shellfish consumption, but not supplementation with isolated omega-3 fatty acids, is consistently associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. (38)由于其高水平的OMEGA-3脂肪酸,海鲜可能对糖尿病具有保护作用,该欧米茄脂肪酸调节细胞胰岛素敏感性,以及其其他胰岛素敏化营养素的水平,例如维生素D,视黄醇和硒。

9. Spices

Spices don’t just liven up meals; they also offer significant health benefits for diabetics. The consumption of cinnamon in doses ranging from 120 mg/day to six g/day has been found to produce significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in type 2 diabetics. (39) Garlic reduces fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, and HbA1c and improves blood lipid profiles. (40) Curcumin, a constituent of turmeric root, has hypoglycemic effects and protects the renal and cardiovascular systems from diabetes-associated complications. (41)

2型糖尿病的五种营养素和营养保健品

Ensuring you get enough of these nutrients and nutraceuticals could prevent type 2 diabetes from developing.

1. Vitamin D

Vitamin Disn’t just crucial for maintaining healthy bones; it also regulates inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Low vitamin D is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, whereas vitamin D supplementation reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetics. (42)

2. Magnesium

Magnesium is an essential cofactor for over 300 enzyme systems in the body, including several that regulate blood sugar. Magnesium insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control. (43,44)虽然镁在各种食物中提供,但包括螺母,鳄梨和黑巧克力,但难以获得足够的食物矿物质以支持最佳健康。我建议补充400至600毫克镁,优选螯合成甘氨酸或苹果酸酯以获得最佳吸收。

3. B12 and Folate

Diabetic patients who have used the commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication metformin long term may benefit from supplemental folate and B12, as the drug depletes levels of these two B vitamins. Folate and B12 supplementation alleviate oxidative stress in diabetics, improving symptoms such as diabetic retinopathy. (45)

4. Berberine

小檗碱,苦化合物with potent antidiabetic properties, can be found in Oregon grape, barberry, and goldenseal plants. It improves insulin resistance and insulin secretion, inhibits the generation of glucose in the liver, reduces the intestinal absorption of glucose, and promotes an anti-inflammatory gut microbiota. Interestingly, berberine works in the same way as the antidiabetic metformin. (46)

5. Alpha-Lipoic Acid

Alpha-lipoic acid is a sulfur-containing compound that acts as a powerful antioxidant in the body. By boosting the body’s endogenous antioxidant systems, alpha-lipoic acid alleviates oxidative stress, an underlying cause of type 2 diabetes; this helps reduce diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy. (47) Alpha-lipoic acid also activates AMPK, a protein with blood sugar-lowering effects. (48)

Other Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

I’ve said it before: there’s really no replacement for ahealthy, ancestral lifestyle当涉及预防慢性疾病时。以下是如何通过您的生活方式预防或逆转2型糖尿病的提示。

Improve Your Gut Health

An altered, inflammatory gut microbiota is paramount in the development of type 2 diabetes, and the research continues to bear this out.

Recent studies have identified a previously unrecognized effect of metformin on the gut microbiota: the drug increases levels ofAkkermansia muciniphila, a commensal gut bacterium associated with reduced inflammation and improved metabolic health. This newly discovered effect of metformin indicates that the gut microbiota indeed plays a pivotal role in type 2 diabetes. (49,50)

Several prebiotics andprobioticshave been investigated for their gut health-promoting, antidiabetic effects:

  • In animal studies, mannan-oligosaccharide, aprebioticfiber found in mushrooms and konjac root, has been found to boost the blood sugar-lowering effects of metformin. (51) Inulin, a prebiotic in chicory, garlic, onions, leeks, and asparagus, reduces fasting blood glucose while also promoting a more metabolically healthy gut microbiota.
  • 一些益生菌菌株还证明了抗糖尿病效应。用乳杆菌和双歧杆菌补充剂改善了2型糖尿病患者的炎症和氧化应激的生物标志物,并通过促进抗炎肠杆菌微生物来降低空腹血糖。(52,53) Anti-inflammatory gut bacteria, in turn, help correct underlying inflammation in diabetes and improve metabolic function.

Exercise

One in four American adults sits for over eight hours every day, making us one extremely sedentary nation! (54) Asedentary lifestyleis a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes, so exercise should be a central part of any treatment plan for the disease. (55)

Fortunately, you don’t have to become a marathoner to prevent or manage diabetes.研究表明了walking for just 30 minutes a day reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes by approximately 50 percent.56) High-intensity interval training (HIIT) also appears beneficial—it reduces fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes and is more effective than continuous aerobic activity (such as jogging) for improving blood sugar control. (57)

In addition to exercising more, reducing sedentary time in daily life is also essential.Alternate sitting with working at a standing desk or treadmill desk. Breaking up prolonged sitting withstanding or walkinghas been shown to improve the post-meal blood sugar response in those at risk for diabetes. (58)

Sleep

The dramatic increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes over the past few decades has paralleled a progressivedecrease in sleep durationreported by American adults. Is sleep loss related to diabetes? Research indicates that this is indeed the case:短暂的睡眠持续时间,定义为每晚睡眠不到七到八小时,已成为2型糖尿病的主要危险因素. (59)

Sleep loss may promote type 2 diabetes by interfering with energy metabolism and increasing insulin sensitivity. (60) Sleep loss also impairs satiety, triggering cravings and overconsumption of sugary processed foods that increase the risk of diabetes.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common cause of sleep loss, promotes type 2 diabetes by inducing hypoxia (when the body doesn’t get enough oxygen), which in turn impairs insulin production by pancreatic beta cells. (61) Strategies that correct OSA, such as the use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine and weight loss, reduce OSA severity and improve blood sugar control. (62,63)

To improve blood sugar control, aim forseven to eight hours of sleep a night. Follow the circadian rhythm-normalizing tips below to enhance your sleep quality further.

Normalize Your Circadian Rhythm

Your circadian rhythm is a set of biochemical processes that occur in your body on an approximately 24-hour schedule and regulate many aspects of your behavior and physiology. Factors that disrupt the human circadian rhythm, such asjet lag, an erratic eating schedule, andblue light exposure at night, impair circadian-regulated pancreatic beta cell function and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. (64)

虽然在动物中进行了大部分研究昼夜破坏和糖尿病风险,但在夜班工人中观察到的2型糖尿病的风险显着提高,旨在促进人类的糖尿病。(65) If you are a type 2 diabetic and want to improve your health,normalizing your circadian rhythmis essential. If you currently work night shifts, you may need to reconsider whether your job is damaging your health. If so, can you avoid night shifts? If that is impossible and your health is in danger, it’s probably time to look for another job. You can also normalize your circadian rhythm by maintaining a regular sleep schedule, avoiding late-night eating, and limiting bright light exposure in the evening with the help of blue light-blocking glasses. (66,67)

Reduce Your Stress Levels

Chronic stressis another overlooked but significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The hormonal changes that go hand in hand with chronic stress cause blood sugar imbalances. (68) High perceived stress is associated with insulin resistance and a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adults. (69,70) The profound effect of stress on blood sugar is mediated by the HPA axis, the body’s stress-response system. Chronic HPA axis activation causes beta cell dysfunction, inhibiting the effects of insulin and inducing insulin resistance. (71)

研究表明了reducing psychological stress可以改善2型糖尿病中的血糖管理。Meditation, yoga, andbreathing exerciseshave been found to decrease fasting blood glucose and post-meal glucose in diabetics. (72) If you’re new to the concept of mindfulness, I recommend starting with an app such asCalmorHeadspace, which offer guided meditations and breathing exercises that are simple and effective for alleviating stress.

避免环境毒素

环境毒素have more recently gained attention for their potential role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggests that BPA, phthalates, and persistent organic pollutants contribute to diabetes, which is why it makes sense toreduce your exposure.

BPA是在聚碳酸酯水瓶,牙科密封剂,锡罐的衬里中发现的化学品,以及收银机收据。通过引起胰腺β细胞的应力,损害胰岛素分泌,BPA暴露会导致糖尿病患者有助于糖尿病。(73,74) It also decreases the levels of adiponectin, a protein hormone that regulates glucose levels, reducing insulin sensitivity in fat cells, skeletal muscle, and the liver. Importantly, BPS, a chemical alternative to BPA commonly used in “BPA-free” products, may not be any safer for the body. (75) For more information, see my article “Re-Examining the Evidence on BPA and Plastics.”

Phthalatesare a type of common plasticizer found in children’s toys, vinyl, and personal care products. Phthalates exacerbate type 2 diabetes by disrupting the PI3K/AKT pathway, reducing the number of glucose receptors in the pancreas and inducing insulin resistance. (76) To reduce exposure to phthalates, avoid buying plastic products as much as possible and use only natural, plant-based shampoo, conditioner, lotion, and other personal care products.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), a category of environmental toxins that include organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and fluorinated compounds, reduce insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, causing hyperglycemia. (77) The metabolic toxicity of POPs is enhanced when these compounds are combined. To reduce your exposure to POPs, buy organic produce and filter your water because conventionally grown produce and tap water are a significant source of persistent organic pollutants.

Research Spotlight: Health Coaching and Diabesity

Digital Health Coaching Reverses Prediabetes

Prediabetes is characterized by a higher than normal blood sugar level and hemoglobin A1c in the range of 5.7 to 6.4 percent; it is the precursor to type 2 diabetes and, if left untreated, will eventually morph into the disease.

Diabetes is primarily caused by modifiable risk factors, including diet and physical activity.已发现具有前驱乳头的人们的生活方式修改减少糖尿病发展more than standard treatment, which typically consists of pharmaceutical drugs and the recommendation to lose weight.However, many people have difficulty sustaining healthy eating and lifestyle practices. The implementation of personal technology and behavioral change are proposed strategies for stemming the tide of diabetes. One study sought to examine whether a digital health coaching program focused on helping patients develop and maintain health-promoting lifestyle behaviors could reverse the course of prediabetes or delay the onset of diabetes.

Study Summary

  • The “Transform DPP” (Diabetes Prevention Program) is a digital program designed to delay or prevent the progression of prediabetes to diabetes. It is adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Diabetes Prevention Program.
  • 变换民进党包括16分享服务经验on diabetes prevention, a digital scale for weight monitoring, an activity tracker, a photo-enabled food diary (participants were encouraged to follow MyPlate guidelines), health coaching, and an online peer support group.
  • The 12-month program was broken up into an initial four-month intervention with multiple health coaching sessions, followed by an eight-month maintenance program. The program included 273 individuals with prediabetes.
  • At the end of the four-month intervention, the following improvements were observed:
    • Participants’ weight decreased by an average of 13.3 lb., or 6.5 percent. A weight loss of 5 to 7 percent has been shown to cut the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58 percent.
    • Body mass index decreased by an average of 1.9 kg/m2.
    • Exercise frequency increased by almost two days per week.
    • Work absenteeism was reduced by half a day per month.

Key Findings

这项研究表明,数字健康coaching program can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes by facilitating weight loss and increasing physical activity, while mitigating healthcare costs. More significant health changes may be possible by combining the program with a Paleo diet template, rather than having participants follow the MyPlate nutrition guidelines.

The format of this program—delivered entirely through digital means—is exciting because it indicates that health coaching doesn’t need to be conducted in person to produce health benefits. Digital health coaching systems offer flexibility, affordability, and accessibility that isn’t always possible with in-person coaching. These aspects make health coaching feasible for people with prediabetes who may not otherwise have access to a health coach. Furthermore, the inclusion of an online peer group provided an additional layer of support to participants and created a sense of accountability.

Reference:A Digital Diabetes Prevention Program (Transform) for Adults With Prediabetes: Secondary Analysis

Health coaches are facilitators of change. They empower their clients to tackle diet and lifestyle changes and offer unconditional support, which can help people take actions to manage or even reverse chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes. With the help of a health coach, clients are often able to better understand their diagnosis and treatment plan, as well as process the sometimes difficult emotions that come with chronic illness. What’s more, clients who have been through coaching often see additional benefits in their lives as they gain the confidence to take action and make changes. In the ADAPT Health Coach Training Program, we offer instruction on how to master the art and practice of health coaching from a Functional and ancestral health perspective. Our students learn how to help clients change their lives and adopt healthier habits.Find out more about what the ADAPT Health Coach Training Program has to offer.

[if lte IE 8]
[if lte IE 8]