适应从业者培训计划入学现已开放。学到更多

抑郁症是疾病还是炎症的症状?

抑郁和其他心理健康状况的想法是由化学物质(特别是血清素和去甲肾上腺素)引起的大脑在我们集体心理中深入地引起的,似乎几乎亵渎了问题。

一个沮丧的人
萧条and inflammation are linked. Find out how. iStock.com/AntonioGuillem

Of course, Big Pharma has played a role in perpetuating this idea. Antidepressant drugs, which are based on the chemical imbalance theory, represent a $10 billion dollar market in the U.S. alone. According to the CDC, 11 percent of Americans over 12 years old take antidepressants, and they are the second-most prescribed medications (after cholesterol-lowering drugs). Doctors wrote a staggering 254 million prescriptions for antidepressants in 2010. (1)

研究表明,抑郁症可能主要由炎症引起。查看本文以了解有关抑郁症连接的更多信息。#hepleylifestyle #chriskress #wellness

然而,随着这个理论变得的流行,它被问题讽刺。例如:

  • 降低去甲肾上腺素,血清素和多巴胺水平does not produce depression in humans, even though it appears to do so in animals.
  • Although some depressed patients have low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, the majority do not. Several studies indicate thatonly 25 percent抑郁症患者具有低水平的这些神经递质。
  • Some depressed patients have异常高血清素和去甲肾上腺素的水平,以及一些抑郁症史的患者都有低水平。(2)

什么if depression isn’t caused by a “化学不平衡” after all? More specifically, what if depression itself is not a疾病, but asymptom潜在的问题?

这正是最近对抑郁症的研究是什么告诉我们的。一种称为“免疫细胞因子模型的抑郁症”的新理论认为,抑郁症不是一种疾病本身,而是“慢性免疫系统激活的多方面迹象”。(3)

明白地说:depression may be a symptom of chronic inflammation

抑郁和炎症之间的联系

A large body of research now suggests that depression is associated with a low-grade, chronic inflammatory response and is accompanied by increased oxidative stress.

作者提出了一篇关于抑郁症与炎症之间的联系的几条证据表明了几条证据:(4)

  • 萧条is often present in acute, inflammatory illnesses. (5)
  • Higher levels of inflammation increase the risk of developing depression. (6)
  • Administering endotoxins that provoke inflammation to healthy people triggers classic depressive symptoms. (7)
  • One-quarter of patients who take interferon, a medication used to treat hepatitis C that causes significant inflammation, develop major depression. (8)
  • Remission of clinical depression is often associated with a normalization of inflammatory markers. (9)

在炎症反应期间,产生称为“细胞因子”的化学品。这些包括肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)α,白细胞介素(IL)-1,干扰素(IFN)†和白细胞介素(IL)-10等。研究人员在20世纪80年代初发现的炎症细胞因子产生各种精神疗法和神经系统症状,完全镜像抑郁症的定义特征。(10)

Interestingly enough, antidepressants (particularly SSRIs) have been shown to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1, interferon IFN-ɣ and increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10. (11,12) They also change the gene expression of some immune cells that are involved in inflammatory processes. This suggests that SSRIs are anti-inflammatory, which would explain their mechanism of action if inflammation is a primary driver of depression.

对这一主题的研究是强大的,现在抑郁和炎症之间的连接现在已经很好地建立。但如果抑郁症主要由炎症引起的,那么出现的明显问题是“导致炎症是什么?”

炎症和抑郁症的九种常见原因

如果您一直遵循我的博客,您知道炎症是几乎所有现代疾病的根源,包括diabetes,老年痴呆症,cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease,过敏,asthma和关节炎。所以也许它不应该发出惊喜depression is also caused by inflammation

The downside of this connection is that ourmodern diet生活方式充满了挑衅炎症的因素 - 因此引起疾病。随着我们解决这些因素并减少炎症,我们可以预防甚至逆转已成为这种工业文明夹具的慢性炎症性疾病。

根据上面提到的Berk等人评论纸的作者,以下是与抑郁症相关的最常见原因。

1. Diet

There are several problems with the modern diet. It is high in foods that provoke inflammation, such as refined flour,多余的糖, oxidized (rancid) fats, trans fats, and a wide range of chemicals and preservatives. And it is low in foods that reduce inflammation, likelong-chain omega-3 fats, fermented foods, and fermentable fiber. Numerous studies have associated the Western diet with major depressive disorder. (13)

2. Obesity

现代饮食的最有害后果之一是急剧增加obesity。肥胖是一种炎症状态。研究表明肥胖人群中炎性细胞因子较高,减肥与那些细胞因子的减少有关。(14)肥胖与抑郁症密切相关,虽然这种关系可能是多因素和复杂的,但炎症似乎发挥了重要作用。(15)

3. Gut Health

Disruptions in thegut microbiomeand leaky gut (i.e. intestinal permeability) have both been shown to contribute to inflammation and correlate with depression. For example, a leaky gut permits endotoxins called lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to escape the gut and enter the bloodstream, where they provoke the release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1 and COX-2. (16) And numerous studies have linked unfavorable changes to the bacteria inhabiting our gut with major depressive disorder. (17)

Want to learn more about gut health?

Download This Free eBook

Your gut microbiome is connected with your overall health. Find out how to maintain and restore a healthy gut.

我也讨厌垃圾邮件。你的电子邮件与我安全。通过注册,您同意我们的意见隐私政策

4. Stress

强调may be one of the most obvious causes of depression, but the link between stress and inflammation is less well-known. Research has shown that psychosocial stress stimulates the pro-inflammatory cytokine network, including increases in TNF-α and IL-1. (18)如上所述,炎性细胞因子的增加与抑郁症状密切相关。

5.缺乏体育活动

There’s a huge amount of evidence indicating thatexerciseis an effective treatment for depression—in many cases as effective or more so than antidepressant drugs. It has also been shown to prevent depression in healthy people with no pre-existing symptoms. (19)有趣的是,虽然运动最初产生与抑郁症相关的相同炎症细胞因子,这很快是诱导抗炎物质。(20)这被称为刺激效果,其中初始压力源引起身体的补偿性反应,这些反应具有积极,长期后果。

6.睡眠剥夺

慢性睡眠损失已被证明甚至在其他健康的人中增加炎症标志物。(21)虽然临时睡眠剥夺已被用于治疗上提高抑郁症,但慢性睡眠损失是首先发展抑郁症的众所周知的因素。(22)

7. Chronic Infection

Chronic infections produce ongoing inflammation, so it’s no surprise to see that depression is associated withToxoplasma gondii, West Nile virus,Clostridium difficile, and other pathogens. (23,24,25)

8.龋齿和牙周病

Dental caries and periodontal disease是慢性炎症的另一个来源,thus a potential cause of depression. According to one large study of over 80,000 adults, researchers found that people with depression were more likely to have tooth loss even after controlling for several demographic and health factors. (26)

9.维生素D缺乏

Low levels ofvitamin Dare common in Western populations, and there is growing evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to depression. Vitamin D modulates immune responses to infection, including reducing inflammatory markers like TNF-α and IL-1 that are associated with depression. (27)用维​​生素D归类为规范化血清25D水平的补充,以减少一些,但并非所有病例中的炎症标志物。(28)

The Biggest Problem with the Chemical Imbalance Theory

20世纪80年代早期发现,炎性细胞因子产生所有特征迹象和抑郁症状的症状应该是一个大的飞溅。有史以来第一次发现了一类与抑郁症紧闭和始终相关的分子,并且当给予健康志愿者时,产生诊断抑郁症所需的所有症状。

不幸的是,“化学不平衡”理论仍然是理解抑郁症近30年后近30年的主导范式尽管血清素,去甲肾上腺素和多巴胺和抑郁症状之间的相关性较弱。这个可能有几个原因 - 如果你猜到了,你就会正确其中一些是金融的- 但我会留下这个讨论再次。

对于患者和临床医生来说,这种发现的重要性是巨大的。它将我们的重点转移到观察抑郁症作为一种由化学性失衡引起的疾病,这通常需要药物纠正,以纠正更深层次的潜在问题。It also leads to entirely new avenues of treatment—many of them more effective and safer than antidepressant drugs.

了解抑郁的物质根源对患有它的人产生深远的影响。虽然近年来耻辱周围的萧条已经下降,但许多郁闷的人仍然带来了思维的负担,因为他们有什么问题,而他们经历的萧条是“他们的错”。当我的抑郁症患者了解到那里他们症状的潜在生理原因,他们常常感受到令人援助和赋权的巨大感觉。什么更多,当我们解决这个潜在的原因时,他们的心情急剧改善,他们很快意识到他们感到沮丧的自我判断和羞耻被放错了和无人物。

I don’t mean to suggest that emotional and psychological factors don’t play an important role in depression. In many cases they do, and我以前写过这个话题。然而,抑郁症的主流药物中的假设是exclusively由这些因素引起的显然不是真的,而且往往是这些其他潜在的基本原因取得了未探索的。医生规定了抗抑郁药,患者需要它,那s the end of the discussion.

什么to Do If You’re Suffering from Depression

考虑到这一点,what can you do if you’re suffering from depression?请遵循以下两个步骤:

1.采用抗炎饮食和生活方式

这意味着吃一个nutrient-dense, whole foods diet,睡得足够睡觉,管理压力,接受适当的(不是太少或太多)的身体活动,和滋养你的胆量。更多关于如何做到这一点,请参阅我的书,古老治愈

2.研究炎症的其他潜在原因

你自己或在一个好处的帮助下Functional Medicine从业者,探索可能导致抑郁症的炎症的其他可能原因。这些包括肠道问题(SIBO,泄漏的肠道,脱疑,感染等),慢性感染(病毒,细菌,真菌),低维生素D水平,龋齿和牙周病,暴露于重金属和模子or other biotoxins, obstructive sleep apnea, and more.

  1. 我在第一次参与自己之前,我正在阅读有关必威电竞这个​​魔术箱和休闲室的一些文章。像这样https://www.trufflemagic.com/blog/magic-mushrooms-illness-and-annigy/他们说对大脑和幻觉有很有效的影响。与大麻有没有医疗使用?在一篇文章中,我读了魔术松露或与合成药物进行过的Shrooms非常惊人。Magic Mushroom也用于减少抑郁症,强迫症和焦虑的症状。它还可以帮助人们戒烟和酒精成瘾。

    • 值得注意的是,目前正在调查一位已知的哈苏喹,氯胺酮,在Groningen,NLS中的Schoevers Research组中断抵抗。对于那些不想从他们的广告中零食的人。

  2. 大家好,我只是想问一下是否有人试过使用医疗大麻作为替代药物?我已经阅读了关于医疗大麻的许多文章必威电竞以及如何在慢性疼痛,骨伤,吃障碍/厌食症,焦虑症和恐慌发作,炎症,甚至癌症和更多的过程中帮助您。像这篇文章一样关于大麻拉伤:http://www.ilovegrowingmarijuana.com/alaska/。CBD和THC对我来说也是新的,我甚至没有吸烟。如果这是真的,我无法找到任何稳定的确凿证据,这些证据与其疗效说话。任何个人经历或推荐都将受到高度赞赏。谢谢

  3. We have great experience with Solaray’s Special Formula Turmeric and Pharma Nord’s SelenoPrecise. Both are great anti-inflammatory tools. Will help with anything from oxidative stress, arthritis and a number of inflammation-related issues, including overuse injuries and even hypothyroidism (SelenoPrecise).

  4. The difference between depression and inflammation or fatigue is condition of adrenals and levels of cortisol. Depressed patients suffer enlarged adrenals that over-produce cortisol and cause weight gain. Inflamed patients with fatigue suffer shriveled adrenals that produce little or no cortisol. Inflamed, fatigued patients lose weight easily and exhibit signs of all hormoen deficicency: thyroid underfunction, pituitary dysfunction, adrenal deficiency, sleep and metabolism hormone imbalance. Anyone who measures just one set of hormones without blood-testing or ultra-sound testing for all hormones is a charlatan. Should not be treating inflamed, fatigued patients at all. Psychiatry has no place in treating Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  5. 每天帮助抑郁症的人的另一个透视是抑郁症是当你向自己向内变成愤怒。与此同时,你用眼泪掩盖了。所以与令人沮丧的人的任务是掌握愤怒并找到表达它的健康方式。

    • It’s a little scary you’re helping so many people with depression. Not only is the idea that depression is anger inward ARCHAIC (in use by EARLY psychoanalysts or ones today with little experience) and created by Freud, there has been no convincing evidence for it. As someone who is healing (quite successfully) from depression, you really need experience and properly taught before dealing with depressed people. The last thing anyone, especially depressed people, need is a focus on “expending emotions”. A way, way more healthy, realistic and working approach is to know and understand how thoughts and emotions work in tandem. For anyone dealing with *mental* depression, this article will somewhat apply to you, but you’re much better off looking into Dr. David D Burns work and Martin Seligman. For those with the more physical “depression”, this article will be more applicable to you, and I would suggest also looking at your calorie count and making sure that not only are you eating foods healthy for YOUR body, but also ENOUGH.

  6. My 8-year old daughter recently started having daily stomach aches and a little depression. I believe they are connected and are related to inflammation, as she comes from a long line of inflammatory diseases (including depression and other auto-immune disorders). However, she eats gluten free and breakfast and lunch and paleo at dinner. Takes omega 3, probiotics and vitamins 5-6 days/wk and does not eat a lot of sugar. So I am wondering where to go from here. Obviously breakfast and lunch could be improved, maybe a stronger probiotic, but what else can I do?

  7. 这次真是万分感谢!!我首先注意到我的健康状况恶化IAT圣诞节2015年,我已经在2015年6月淘汰了乳制品和麸质,我在2014年患者生病,回到了家中,我的医生问为什么我需要重复血液检查并说“我希望我鳕鱼近重的重量就像你一样“我是骷髅,我在9天内吃掉了,我花了三天从撒哈拉拉到塞布塔的西班牙领土,我最终在脱水,肾脏发行和善良都知道什么,我得到了9不同的滴水!!我的肠道有蜜蜂
    n bad since that but I kept eating and dealing with more regular stomach cramps, bloating, I was already diagnosed with IBS years previously by a professor.
    So in Dec I was getting more and more ill, I started working at a school where I would pick up every cough and cold feom the children, I felt like I had no immunity and I was constantly feeling ran down, up until then I was eating well and at a healthy weight. The more the IBS symptoms happened the kore I started eliminating food to find the cause or trigger, but with zero help from the gp I continued to cut foods, my doc tested for allergies and didnt believe Iin IBS and offered me antidepressants. I have worked out most days since I was 15, then 28, I didnt want meds I wanted to find the reasons why! I saw another doc who advised me to take buscapan… she didnt listen or understand why I wanted to eliminate foods that affected me rather than mask the symptoms. I went back to the second gp who by now I had lost a lot of weight.. he said because now I had anxiety towards food and had eliminated a whole range of stuff that he will only presfribe antidepressants to surpress my anxiety to allow me to eat more. I saw a CBT therapist, who worked with the GP who then started telling me at each session I needed antidepressants. . I bought a book on gut health and learnt that you are able to test gut bacteria by the american gut. (Im still waiting for the results) I decided to try on my own, I started eating better and forcing myself to go for a bike ride, a bit scary cause I was so underweight, ive now gone private for a full GI test to find the imbalances and issues caused in my gut and will work with a private nutritionist to work out a protocol of supplements, pre/pro biotics, but I have had to go through deep dark depression and suicidal thoughts due to the lack of support! Private healthcare will cost over £1000 (uk) but at least I will learn where and what the inflamation is

    • I can relate Kayleigh! Long ago, I came back from Puerto Vallarta, Mexico with intestinal cramping and pains. This was back in 1989. I had no idea I had a parasite in the colon..this created the IBS and candida overgrowth…plus eventually a bacterial overgrowth.
      我一直和焦虑,我的大部分生活depression all due to not being breast fed and given numerous broad spectrum antibiotics and never told to take probiotics.
      You have a bacterial overgrowth, so I hope that you can get this diagnosed by a Gastroenterologist first, then you need to take antibiotics to kill off the bad bacteria, then you need to implement the good guys (bacteria) back into the digestive tract. Otherwise, you’ll end up with heartburn or barrett’s esophagus from bad bacteria relocating from the colon into the small intestines. You will need a Functional/Integrative Medicine MD that specializes in Gastroenterology that can help to get back onto the road of life.
      Unfortunately, for me, I have mold that spread from the digestive tract into my tissues, because the candida and bacterial overgrowth weren’t treated properly and timely, so I am suffering with mold in my arms, legs, back, kidneys, liver, bladder. It loves fats and metals…it has been quite a journey for me. Please get help right away….I wish that someone could have helped me along the way long ago. Can’t go back!
      Good Luck to you…you have quite a support network here.

      • 安,对不起,你经历了什么。只是想提到我母乳喂养我的旧儿子6 mos。,但多年来他已经挣扎了抑郁症。(我认为母乳喂养是很多原因的重要性)。他不经常像孩子一样抗生素,但我确实知道在抗生素和抗生素后给他掌握益生菌。我的观点是,抑郁症是复杂的,不一定是由我们可能的想法引起的。我家里每个人的最佳反抑郁结果一直是采用祖先(古)饮食和运动。C.克拉克斯最近还撰写了更多常见的微量营养素......缺陷,包括镁),可以为抑郁症做出贡献。我最喜欢的新书是'Paleo Protiples'(2017年底)由Sarah Ballantyne,PHD。它是最全面的古图书,也提供了支持古饮食和生活方式的科学。(It isn’t a book about depression, though it is addressed under mental health: 1-2 grams daily of omega 3’s help depression in multiple studies. Also, low levels of the following are linked to depression: Vitamin D, B6, B9, B12, Zinc, & certain amino acids. These can all be corrected. Of course, many studies show exercise helps. Dr. Ballantyne states exercising outdoors w/ exposure to sunlight may be more beneficial to mental health than exercising indoors. (Brisk 20 min. walk outside w/ increased light exposure, 5 days per week). Yes, you can definitely move forward!

    • Well done love n you keep going, no doubt you will get much better as you heal your gut. Including bone broth in your diet everyday will help with the gut healing, from clean grassfed or free range animals of course, cheap and wonderful. I use a pressure cooker to make mine and double or triple cook the bones replacing and saving the broth after the first cook and i get a very “jelly” broth from it and enough to last a week.
      上帝祝福你!