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骨肉汤的丰富益处:一个综合指南

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In traditional cooking, people often use meat bones as a base for delicious stock. Aside from being the secret to great cooking, bone broth is also incredibly nutritious and has scores of health benefits. Read on to learn more about bone broth benefits and why you should make this amazing drink a staple in your diet.

These beef bones and vegetables can be simmered to make a nutritious bone broth that yields a lot of benefits.
Drinking bone broth—made from beef or chicken bones and vegetables—can benefit your skin, heart, muscles, joints, and gut health. istock.com/Madeleine_Steinbach

The Weston A. Price Foundation and advocates of the Paleo and Primal lifestyles favor bone broth for its wide array of nutrients that are difficult to find in any other food source. In her book,Gut and Psychology Syndrome: Natural Treatment for Autism, Dyspraxia, A.D.D., Dyslexia, A.D.H.D., Depression, Schizophrenia娜塔莎坎贝尔麦克布莱德博士使骨骼和肉类储存差距协议的基础,因为它可以愈合和密封肠衬,减少有害微生物过度生长。(1)Broth made from chicken bones may also reduce the migration of immune cells during sickness. These are just some of the many reasons to love bone broth.

Bone broth is mentioned in dozens of articles on my blog, but I haven’t really provided a thorough analysis in a single, convenient place for my readers. So here it is: everything you need to know about bone broth benefits. In this research-dense article, I will cover the role of broth in traditional cultures, the nutritive components of bone broth, the numerous health benefits, and the best来源的方法

Bone Broth in Traditional Cultures

A South American proverb says, “Good broth will resurrect the dead.” While this is certainly a stretch of the imagination, the ability of broth—and chicken broth, in particular—to treat the common cold has long been touted as ancient folk wisdom.

Check out this article for the latest research on the benefits of bone broth.

内布拉斯加州大学的科学家们试图test this folklore in 2000 and found that in vitro (in a Petri dish), some components of chicken soup were able to inhibit the migration of innate immune cells called neutrophils, effectively acting as an anti-inflammatory that could, in theory, reduce symptoms of illness. (2)是否在体内发生这种效果(在生物体中)尚不清楚,但这种初步数据表明我们的祖先可能已经到了某些东西。我们将探讨骨肉汤如何在后续部分中更好地利益免疫系统。

The Global Appeal of This Superfood

Evidence of the existence of soup dates back 20,000 years. (3.)It’s well-accepted that broth of some sort was, and remains, a staple in many traditional cultures. In Danish and German culture, large hens were specifically reserved for making soup, and the cooked meat was retained for other dishes or added back to the soup. In East Asian diets, dishes like miso sometimes contain meat stock. In Greece, beaten eggs mixed with lemon are commonly added to chicken broth as a traditional remedy for colds and digestive upset. Chicken soup in Hungary usually included器官肉类那like chicken liver and heart, while in Vietnam and the Philippines, beef bone marrow was used as the base for making beef bone broth. In India, chicken soup is popularly sold by roadside vendors in the winter and takes on many different forms.

Chicken soup was a traditional dish of Jewish kitchens. It has even been called “Jewish penicillin” and is used to treat and prevent illness. In American tradition, chicken soup was prepared using old hens that were too tough to be roasted or cooked but still made excellent soup. Unfortunately, the only soup that most Americans eat today is canned, highly processed, and devoid of nutrients.

Unlocking Bone Broth Benefits With Nose-to-Tail Eating

功能药物的核心组分是使用整个食物滋养你的身体and get the nutrients you need to stay healthy. Traditional cultures achieved this by practicing nose-to-tail eating and consuming all parts of the animal, including the:

  • 皮肤
  • Cartilage
  • Tendons
  • 其他富含明胶的肉类

This provided a balanced intake of all the amino acids necessary to build and maintain essential structures in the human body. Some anthropologists have even suggested that in some regions of the world, early humans were scavengers rather than hunters, using tools to crack open the bones of carcasses left by lions and other large predators to expose the rich bone marrow. (4.

不幸的是,许多现代文化都失去了全动物的实践。在炉膛上持续烹饪的古老骨肉汤的年龄古老的传统已经丧失了现代便利,微波炉和高度加工的罐装汤。将骨汤带回现代饮食提供了一种简单而美味的手段,可以从传统文化所珍视的动物中获得营养。

消耗骨肉汤具有许多益处,并且在历史上是许多不同文化的一部分。它也是一个叫做鼻子的更大想法的一部分。尾部吃鼻子是关于消耗动物的所有部位,它有助于你利用身体需要的广泛营养。

吃鼻子到尾部的部分挑战正在改变饮食行为。您可能要问的一些问题是:你在哪里得到器官肉,或者你如何准备它们让他们味道好?对于那些想要进行这一变化但不确定开始的人来说,有资源可用于帮助您。一个伟大的资源是健康教练。支持制作变化的人是健康教练的一部分。

卫生教练是帮助人们采用新行为的专家,并帮助他们达到健康目标,包括饮用骨肉汤和尾部的鼻子。如果您想了解有关尾尾的益处的更多信息,以使这些和其他健康行为发生变化,卫生教练的职业可能会为您服务。了解更多信息ADAPT Health Coach Training Program

富含营养丰富的金矿

骨骼含有丰富的矿物质以及17个不同的氨基酸,其中许多在骨肉汤中发现作为胶原蛋白和明胶等蛋白质。尽管确切的营养含量基于所使用的骨骼,烹饪时间和烹饪方法而变化,但在大多数骨肉汤中始终存在以下营养物。

Collagen

With 28 different types, collagen makes up about 30 percent of the protein in your body. (5.)它是结缔组织的主要成分,如:

  • Cartilage
  • Ligaments
  • Tendons
  • Bone
  • 皮肤

它还存在于血管,角膜和眼睛镜片中。胶原蛋白的名称来自希腊语“kólla”,意思是“胶水”和后缀“-Gen”,意思是“生产”。(6.)In fact, early glue was made from collagen more than 8,000 years ago, likely by boiling the skin and sinews of animals. (7.)In addition to providing structure, collagen also plays an important role in tissue development and regulation. (8.9.

Gelatin

When collagen is simmered, it forms gelatin. This hydrolysis of collagen is irreversible and results in the breakdown of long collagen protein fibrils into smaller protein peptides. However, its chemical composition is very similar to its parent molecule, collagen. (10.)Gelatin is what gives bone broth or stock its Jell-O-like consistency once it has cooled.

Glycosaminoglycans

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex carbohydrates that participate in many biological processes. They can attach to proteins in order to form proteoglycans, which are integral parts of connective tissue and synovial fluid, the lubricant that surrounds the joint. (11)如果胶带,韧带和软骨等结缔组织仍然附着,肉汤中的骨骼将为我们的身体提供皮肤,骨骼和软骨形成的原料,包括:

  • Keratan sulfates
  • Dermatan sulfates
  • 硫酸软骨素
  • 透明质酸

甘氨酸

甘氨酸is an amino acid that makes up more than a third of collagen. It also acts as a neurotransmitter, binding to glycine receptors present throughout the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Signaling through this receptor is particularly important in mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the brainstem and spinal cord. (1213.

Proline

脯氨酸是氨基酸,其占胶原蛋白的约17%。向脯氨酸加入羟基显着增加了胶原蛋白的稳定性,对其结构至关重要。虽然可以在身体中制造少量脯氨酸,但证据表明,需要足够的膳食脯氨酸,以保持体内该氨基酸的最佳水平。(14.15.)Proline is not typically thought of as a neurotransmitter, but it is able to weakly bind to glutamate receptors and glycine receptors. (16.

Glutamine

Glutamine is another important amino acid found in bone broth and is the most abundant amino acid in the blood. (17.)It is one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood–brain barrier. (18.)肠上皮细胞和活化的免疫细胞热切地消耗谷氨酰胺用于细胞能量。(19.20.

Bone Marrow

Inside the center cavity of the bone is the bone marrow, consisting of two types: red and yellow. Both types contain collagen.

Red bone marrow is the manufacturing site for new immune cells and red blood cells, while yellow marrow consists of healthy fats. (2122)It is thought that important nutritional and immune support factors might be extracted from marrow during cooking, but the bioavailability of these factors has not been studied.

矿物质

Bone is also full of a variety of minerals, including:

  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Zinc (23.

An acidic medium is necessary to extract these minerals from your meal. When making broth, always add a splash of vinegar or other acids in order to extract the most minerals from the bone.

Health Benefits

At this point, I hope you have a solid understanding of the components of bone broth. Now, let’s get on to the health benefits.

皮肤Health

皮肤is composed of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis, or upper layer, is made of keratinocytes and is largely responsible for skin barrier function. Underneath is the dermis, which is a dense matrix of collagen and GAGs that provides structural and nutritive support. (24.)Keratin, collagen, and GAGs are abundant in bone broth, particularly if the skin from the animal is included in the cooking process.

Multiple studies have shown that collagen and gelatin, which are both found in bone broth, can benefit yourskin’s health。In a 2014 randomized and controlled trial, collagen consumption significantly improved skin elasticity and tended to improve skin moisture content. (25.)Collagen scaffolds are widely used in medical applications to promote tissue regeneration and heal wounds. (26.)小鼠的一项研究发现,用明胶补充饮食甚至能够防止紫外线诱导的皮肤损伤。(27.

GAG还提供额外的皮肤效益。已经证明了GAG透明质酸促进了皮肤细胞增殖并增加了视黄酸的存在,这改善了皮肤的水化。(28.)已显示皮肤硫酸盐有助于细胞周转和伤口修复。(29.

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health

Remember glycine, an amino acid that is particularly abundant in bone broth? Glycine plays a role in blood sugar regulation by controlling gluconeogenesis, the production of glucose in the liver, and has even been suggested to counteract some of the negative effects of dietaryfructose有限公司nsumption. (3.0.3.1)甘氨酸has also been shown to reduce the size of heart attacks. (3.2

Furthermore, glycine balances out methionine intake. Muscle meats and eggs are high in methionine, an amino acid that raises homocysteine levels in the blood. High homocysteine is a significant risk factor for serious diseases like heart disease, stroke, mental illness, and fractures, and it increases our need for homocysteine-neutralizing nutrients like vitamins B6, B12, folate, and choline. (3.3.)People who eat lots of animal protein need adequate glycine to balance out the methionine from meat, and you’ll get that from bone broth. For more information, check out Denise Minger’s20.13.presentationin which she discusses this very issue.

Muscles and Performance

甘氨酸is also important for the synthesis of hemoglobin and myoglobin, which transport oxygen throughout the blood and muscle tissue, respectively. (3.4.)甘氨酸还增加肌酸水平,这导致厌氧(高强度)运动能力的增加,并刺激人生生长激素的分泌,这可能会增强肌肉修复。(3.5.3.6.3.7.)最近的证据表明,脯氨酸可能在调节mTOR细胞信号通路方面发挥作用,该途径将来自营养素,生长因子,应力因子和细胞能量状态的信号整合到影响细胞功能和生长。脯氨酸与其他氨基酸一起激活MTOR,导致肌肉蛋白质合成增强。(3.8.

腺苷三磷酸(ATP)是可用于执行工作的体内能量的化学形式。磷是形成该化合物所需的,除非它与镁离子结合,否则ATP不能生物活性活性。磷营养缺陷have been shown to reduce muscle performance. (3.9.4.0.)两种磷和镁在骨肉汤中以适度的量存在。

Bones and Joints

It should be pretty obvious that the best way to get the nutrients necessary to build bone is from consuming bone-based foods. Drinking bone broth provides all of the raw material for building healthy bones, including:

  • Amino acids
  • And more
A deficiency of the raw materials for building bone can result in a number of different conditions. For example, osteoporosis is associated with reduced levels of collagen and calcium in the bones. (4.14.2) 当然,保持骨骼健康那you’ll also need the nutrients required to support the building process, like vitamins D, K2, and C.

至于联合健康,Gags的润滑是全方位运动的关键。GAG允许一部分骨骼在另一个骨骼上平稳而无痛地滑动。当然,您可以购买含有氨基葡萄糖和硫酸软骨素的昂贵的补充剂,以保持您的关节健康,但是,当这些和许多其他有益的营养物可以容易地从骨肉汤中获得?毕竟,GAG不是肉汤中唯一提高联合健康的组成部分。胶原蛋白也可能有益于关节。在一项研究中,研究人员发现服用胶原蛋白补充剂后运动员的关节疼痛较少。(4.3.

肠道健康

A healthy colon contains a single, tight layer of epithelial cells, a thick mucus layer, and a diverse collection of microbes. Microbial dysbiosis and a thinning of this mucus layer can quickly compromise the integrity of the epithelial barrier and cause aleaky gut。在漏洞的人们中,微生物和膳食蛋白质可以将“泄漏”进入血液,并通过免疫系统调用炎症反应。脂多糖(LPS)是细菌细胞壁的组分,刺激了特别稳健的免疫应答。(4.4.

Eating bone broth is an effective way toheal your gut。Gelatin absorbs water and helps maintain the layer of mucus that keeps gut microbes away from the intestinal barrier. In a mouse model, gelatin supplementation reduced the severity of colitis by strengthening the mucus layer and altering gut microbiota composition. (4.5.)Gelatin and glycine have also been shown to reduce the inflammation LPS causes. (4.6.4.7.)已显示甘氨酸也可以防止胃溃疡。(4.8.)Glutamine also helps maintain the integrity of the gut mucosa and intestinal barrier. (4.9.)These are just a fewreasons why nearly everyone should eat gelatin,甘氨酸和谷氨酰胺。

Digestion

骨肉汤对肠系健康有这么多的好处,我必须彻底消化自己的部分。用餐喝汤是帮助消化的绝佳方式。甘氨酸刺激胃酸的生产,这对于任何膳食的适当消化必威星际争霸至关重要。(5.0.)Low stomach acid (hypochlorhydria) is surprisingly common in developed countries and can lead to a number of health issues, includingheartburn and GERD

甘氨酸is also an important component of bile acid, which is released to aid in the digestion of fats in the small intestine. (5.1)Bile acid is important for maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. The presence of gelatin in the gut also draws fluid into the intestine, which improves gut motility and supports healthy bowel movements. Low blood levels of collagen have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. (5.2

解毒,肝功能和肾脏健康

最近,有一些担忧有关骨肉汤和铅毒性。However, the vitamins and minerals that are abundant in bone broth, and in Paleo diets in general, can protect against the harmful effects ofenvironmental toxins像铅一样。甘氨酸还刺激了谷胱甘肽的生产,身体的主抗氧化剂。必威星际争霸(5.3.)In animal models, glycine has been shown to speed recovery from alcohol-induced fatty liver disease, protect liver cells against hypoxia, and improve survival after liver transplantation. (5.4.5.5.5.6.)In humans, glycine reduces oxidative stress in people with metabolic syndrome. (5.7.

脯氨酸在细胞凋亡中发挥作用,该过程通过旧细胞破裂,清除废物产品,并回收用于健康细胞的原料。必威星际争霸(5.8.)Proline can scavenge free radicals, effectively acting as an antioxidant. (5.9.另一方面,谷氨酰胺用作无毒氮转运蛋白,安全地穿过血液中的胺基团到肾脏。在肾脏中,谷氨酰胺转化为谷氨酸通过生产铵来调节酸碱平衡。(6.0.

Eye Health

是的,骨肉汤可能有助于改善眼睛健康。角膜由三个主要层组成:

  • An outer epithelial layer
  • A middle layer
  • An inner endothelial layer

透明质酸stimulates proliferation of the epithelial cells that line the cornea and is commonly used during eye surgery to help replace lost fluids. (6.16.2)The middle, or stromal, layer is largely made of collagen, keratan sulfates, and chondroitin sulfates. Keratan sulfates have been shown to be essential to the transparency of the cornea, while chondroitin sulfate has been shown to influence the development of neural pathways in the retina. (6.3.6.4.)还显示氨基酸甘氨酸,以延迟糖尿病大鼠模型中白内障的进展。(6.5.

Brain Health

骨肉汤的许多组分有益于神经系统。骨汤中的健康脂肪 - 特别是如果用骨髓骨骼制造 - 为大脑提供燃料和原料的来源。毕竟,超过60%的人脑由脂肪组成。(6.6.

甘氨酸已被证明在缺血性中风后防止神经元死亡,并且可能在出生后的前几个月中发挥脑的发展中的相关作用。(6.7.6.8.

钙对神经传导至关重要。当一个nerve cell is stimulated, the influx of calcium triggers neurotransmitter release, allowing the signal to be passed on to the next nerve cell. Calcium deficiency affects this transmission and can result in symptoms of:

最后,硫酸软骨素在中枢神经系统中的再生和可塑性中起重要作用,这意味着它对于学习和记忆至关重要。(6.9.

情绪和睡眠

For some people, bone broth helps improve both mood and sleep. Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning it can:

  • Decrease anxiety
  • 促进精神平静
  • Help with sleep (7.0.

One study found that three grams of glycine given to subjects before bedtime produced measurable improvements in sleep quality. (7.1

Unlike methionine, glycine does not compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood–brain barrier. (7.2)色氨酸是血清素的前体(原料),这是一种有助于福祉的感受的神经递质。反过来,血清素是褪黑激素的前体,一种调节睡眠唤醒循环的激素。这就是为什么包括骨汤和肉类肥胖的饮食的饮食可以帮助预防抑郁症和beat the insomniathat some people experience when eating a diet high in methionine-rich lean meat and eggs.

免疫功能

While ancient folk wisdom suggests that a hot cup of bone broth can help soothe the sick and cure the common cold, modern studies have confirmed that the components of bone broth can boost the immune system. For example, glycine receptors have been identified on the outer surface of several different types of immune cells. (7.3.7.4.)The effect is a dampening of the immune response, resulting in reduced inflammatory signaling molecules and oxidative stress that may reduce damage to lungs and other tissues. (7.5.)The GAG heparan sulfate has been shown to influence B cell function, T cell function, and macrophage activity. (7.6.

Where to Source It

总而言之,有一种令人难以置信的骨肉汤益处,这种热饮源于悠久的人类使用历史。它为任何饮食提供了很好的补充,可以在众多膳食中使用。

When it comes to sourcing it, you can make your own bone broth at home, or you can purchase it pre-made. However you choose to get your hands on this liquid gold, be sure to make bone broth a staple in your diet.

Homemade bone broth is simple to make. Ask your local farmers if they have soup bones, or roast a whole pastured chicken and save the bones for cooking broth. Chicken feet, chicken necks, calves’ feet, and marrow bones are particularly valuable additions to broth. You can find a good, easy recipe over at theWeston A. Price Foundation website

预制骨肉汤也是一个很好的选择。当您购物时,请务必遵循这些步骤。

Buy Organic, Pasture-Raised Bone Broth

买汤制成的有机和牧场-raised animals or wild-caught fish will minimize the toxins and maximize the nutrients you get from the product.

Kettle & Fireis a good option for packaged, organic broth. The company uses bones of organic, pasture-raised animals along with organic vegetables, sea salt, and herbs, all slow-simmered for 24 hours.

避免罐头

Don’t buy bone broth that comes in cans or otherplastic food containers含有双酚A(BPA)或BPA替代品。BPA是一种有效的内分泌干扰,带有一系列健康风险。

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  1. I’m from the Northwest part of Turkic region of China(Silk Road and not chinese) so my mother used to feed me bone marrow when I was a baby to strengthen my immunity and gut health and fed me broth with lamb and veggies as well. I grew up eating grassfed lamb basically consuming from head to toe. Organ meat is regularly consumed by my people. From adding to soups to sausages and stir fries or just plain liver skewers. But also certain spices were important to add to certain organ meats. It was a strange culture to delve into in the West when most don’t or won’t eat organ meat and if the broth is properly made to some it’s too rich. I still love organ meat and bone broth to this day!

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