甲状腺功能减退和不孕症之间的联系

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甲状腺疾病are quite common, especially among women, who are five to eight times more likely than men to experience thyroid problems. One in eight women will develop a thyroid disorder in her lifetime, but those with undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease are especially at risk for a number of serious conditions, including infertility. (1)

甲状腺功能亢进和不孕症
Hypothyroidism can lead to infertility. iStock/AlexRaths

This article originally appeared inPaleo Magazine

In this article, I’ll explain why hypothyroidism and infertility are linked, and provide some advice on how to correct the issue with anancestral healthapproach.

甲状腺功能减退症与不孕症有关。签出本文,了解甲状腺健康如何影响您的构思能力,并学习如何纠正问题。#optimalhealth #heplealtylifestyle #chriskresser.

甲状腺功能亢进如何影响生育?

身体中的每个细胞都具有甲状腺激素的受体。如果在生产,转化和吸收甲状腺激素的产生,转化率和摄取时,它会导致甲必威星际争霸状腺腺(甲状腺功能亢进)或过度活跃(甲状腺功能亢进)。(2)Both conditions can impact every major system in your body, including your reproductive system.3)

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甲状腺影响雌性生殖激素的水平。必威星际争霸(4,5,6) An imbalance in thyroid hormone can lead to too much or too little of these key hormones, which could impact fertility:

  • 雌激素水平调节排卵,施肥和月经的模式。
  • Together with estrogen,黄体酮prepares the uterine lining to accept a fertilized egg; it also helps a fertilized egg implant successfully into the uterine wall.
  • 促性腺激素 - 释放激素发出垂体腺体以产生卵泡刺激激素,导致卵泡to burst and release an egg that makes its way from the left or right ovary into the fallopian tube to await fertilization.
  • Luteinizing hormoneis also crucial for ovulation, signaling the ovaries to release a mature egg.
  • Prolactin与孕妇和母乳喂养女性的母乳生产有关。必威星际争霸

甲状腺功能减退症可以导致激素失衡和触发:(7,8)

  • 不常见的月经期,异常重或延长出血,或者完全没有一段时间
  • 一个novulation, a condition where the ovaries do not release an egg
  • 麻烦构思

For pregnant women, hypothyroidism can result in: (9)

  • 早产
  • 妇女的高血压,没有它的历史(预先兰肯西的早期指标)
  • 胎儿生长和发展问题
  • 流产或死产

什么导致甲状腺功能减退症?

甲状腺功能减退症通常可以追溯到两个主要原因之一:

  • Nutrient deficiency
  • 自身免疫

在营养缺乏的情况下,通常缺乏iodine, zinc, and/orseleniumis causing the problem. These are critical for proper thyroid function, as well as the production and conversion of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). (10,11,12)

一个utoimmune-related hypothyroidism, known asHashimoto’s disease,发生在身体攻击自己的甲状腺时,最终摧毁其生产甲状腺激素的能力。Hashimoto的疾病可能对成人甲状腺功能亢进的约90%负责。13)

测试甲状腺功能亢进

Conventional medical testing often focuses on testing T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, but this approach can miss vital information about thyroid function and metabolism (and it can fail to detect an underactive thyroid that is not yet full-blown hypothyroidism by clinical standards).

If you are unable to become pregnant and you’re experiencing hypothyroid symptoms (such as fatigue, weight gain, mood swings, cold hands and feet, and hair loss) but haven’t yet been diagnosed, I recommend使用功能性医学从业者。他们会看看additional thyroid health markers在开始治疗之前,超越T4和TSH,包括T3,免费T3,免费T4和甲状腺抗体。

Seven Ways to Treat Your Hypothyroidism and Improve Fertility

一个s a Functional Medicine practitioner, my mission is todiscover and treat the root causeof a condition using the treatment method that works best with minimal (preferably no) harmful side effects. Many women have found relief takinghypothyroid hormone replacement medication,尤其是那些具有慢性升高的Tsh水平的人。每一个自身免疫条件都很复杂和个性化,包括Hashimoto的疾病。有时,对一个女人有效的治疗方案对另一个的效益也不具有相同的益处。这就是为什么它最好地与知识渊博的从业者合作,他们可以指导您为自己的状况指导有效的甲状腺功能亢进治疗。

此外,您还可以通过饮食和生活方式改善您在祖先健康方法中的饮食和生活方式改善。

1.治愈你的肠道

Dysbiosis has been implicated in countless autoimmune diseases—no surprise, since much of our immune response is mitigated by our gut. Given that our gut microbes recognize a number of endocrine molecules, including sex and thyroid hormones, it’s likely thatan altered gut microbiome plays a role in hypothyroidism。(14,15)并且它遵循愈合你的肠道可以抵消甲状腺功能减退症。

除了随后的肠系健康促进提示外,我还建议寻求治疗您可能拥有的任何肠道病原体,并采用健康的睡眠和运动习惯。

2. Remove Inflammatory Foods from Your Diet

If you have Hashimoto’s, adopting an anti-inflammatory diet can help regulate your immune response and alleviate symptoms. Abasic Paleo dietis anti-inflammatory and a great start, but if you’re still experiencing symptoms, try the自身免疫协议(AIP)饮食。该一个IP diet recommends the initial removal of eggs, nightshades like tomatoes and eggplants, coffee, alcohol (which you’d avoid anyway during pregnancy), nuts, and seeds (in addition to typical Paleo recommendations like removing grains, legumes, dairy,工业种子油,和excess refined sugar).

In one promising study, women who followed the AIP diet, coupled with lifestyle interventions, reported improved quality of life, including more energy and better emotional health. Some even decreased their thyroid hormone replacement medication. (16)

3. Eat Iodine- and Selenium-Rich Foods

Iodine and selenium are critical for healthy thyroid function. Adding these foods to your diet can help alleviate any deficiency that’s driving your hypothyroidism. Iodine-rich foods include:

  • Fortified table salt (sea salt generally doesnotcontain iodine)
  • 海蔬菜像海带,紫菜和海带
  • Freshwater fish and fish heads

Selenium-rich foods include:

  • 巴西坚果(这些特别富含硒 - 每天只需要一个或两个,以改善您的硒状况)(17)
  • Cremini mushrooms
  • 鳕鱼
  • Tuna
  • Halibut
  • 三文鱼
  • 扇贝
  • Chicken
  • Eggs
  • Shiitake mushrooms
  • 羊肉
  • 火鸡

补充是一种选择,但一些研究表明潜在的并发症with long-term selenium supplementation, ranging from gastrointestinal upset and fatigue to irritability and mild nerve damage. (18) And, while the amount of iodine present in food isn’t usually a concern—especially if your selenium levels are sufficient—I don’t recommend that people with Hashimoto’s supplement with high doses of iodine. Increased supplemental iodine intake can worsen your body’s autoimmune attack on your thyroid. (19) If you choose to supplement, work with a nutritionist who is familiar with treating hypothyroidism. (And if you’re concerned about mercury intake from fish when you’re pregnant, speak to your practitioner—there are safe seafood choices.)

4.了解脱毛剂

Goitrogensinterfere with the thyroid’s iodine uptake. Cooked goitrogenic foods are rarely a problem (especially if your iodine intake is sufficient), but if you consume large amounts of these foods raw each day, you may need to offset the risk by taking 800 to 1,000 mcg of iodine. In general, steam or boil goitrogenic foods and try not to eat them in excess. (20)脱脂食品包括:

  • Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, bok choy, and cabbage)
  • 樱桃,桃子,杏,草莓和覆盆子等水果
  • Soy, spinach, sweet potato, and tapioca

某些药物还有资格作为脱血剂,包括一些抗生素,非甾体抗炎药和锂,如溴化物,二恶英,农药和硫氰酸酯(在香烟中发现)。

5. Increase Your Carb Intake

Very-low-carb (keto) diets can worsen thyroid problems.您的甲状腺需要足够的胰岛素将T4转化为甲状腺激素的活性形式T3。该keto饮食(no more than 10 percent of daily calories come from carbs) has been shown to reduce levels of T3, which would worsen hypothyroid symptoms. (21)

如果您正在经历甲状腺功能透视和不孕症,您可能会更好地完成中等碳水化合物饮食(up to 30 percent of daily calories come from carbs). Another option is cycling into and out of a keto diet on a weekly or monthly basis. That said, this is another case where the results vary considerably from person to person. I’ve had patients who don’t experience a decrease in thyroid function on a low-carb or ketogenic diet.

6. Manage Your Stress

我不能夸大了慢性胁迫的有害健康影响。不受控制的压力可以释放炎症细胞因子,这可能会损害正常的甲状腺功能,包括甲状腺激素生产。必威星际争霸(22,23,24,25,26)慢性应激也可以影响生殖激素,包括雌激素。必威星际争霸(27)

介意冥想,瑜伽,deep breathing exercises,和spending quality time with your loved onescan help reduce your stress levels.

7.得到一些阳光

阳光照射对自身免疫有保护影响,vitamin D deficiency与若干自身免疫疾病有关,包括Hashiomoto。(28,29,30) If you’re considering vitamin D supplementation (which may be necessary if you don’t get enough through sunlight), I recommend working with a practitioner. A number of factors influence how your body absorbs vitamin D, including: (31)

  • 肠道炎症
  • 该fat content of your diet
  • Your age
  • Your cortisol levels
  • 特定的遗传多态性,在具有自身免疫的人中有些常见
Learning how to incorporate a new diet or lifestyle can be a challenge.幸运的是,健康教练在这里有所帮助。Health coaches excel at supporting people who are trying to change their behavior—whether they’re trying out the AIP diet for the first time, starting a new mindfulness meditation practice, or adopting a more disciplined sleep schedule to support their gut health. Health coaches empower their clients to use their own strengths and motivation to achieve long-lasting change and hit their health goals.

Coaches play a critical role in the fight against chronic illness. If you’d like to learn how to help others make healthier choices and improve their lives, a career as a health coach could be the right fit for you.Click here to find out more about how to become a health coach with the ADAPT Health Coach Training Program

甲状腺健康和生育的另一个提示:避免环境毒素

工业化学品,农药和除草剂,消费品中的毒素,重金属可以损害你的甲状腺健康。如果你怀孕或试图怀孕,很多有害环境毒素can also cross the placenta and reach your baby. Here are some simple ways to limit your exposure:

  • Use a high-quality water filter为您的饮用和沐浴水(因为自来水可以是毒素的重要来源)。
  • 有机食品没有过量的除草剂和杀虫剂。
  • Limit your use of双酚A(BPA) - 甲型塑料,and keep in mind that BPA-free plastics can contain bisphenol derivatives, which are also disruptive to the thyroid.
  • Replace non-stick cookware(可以将全氟辛酸浸入食物中)stainless steel or enameled cast iron
  • 确保您有最佳的碘和硒, which can counter the effects that industrial chemicals and heavy metals can have on the thyroid.

I hope this article has helped you gain a better understanding of what could be causing your thyroid disorder and infertility. If you do need further help, I encourage you towork with a Functional Medicine practitionerwho understands how to address the root cause of your thyroid condition.

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