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为什么你应该知道如何阅读营养标签

I’ve long believed that in order to stave off modern chronic diseases and reclaim the natural vitality our ancestors enjoyed we need to eat as they ate and avoid the foods that had no place in their daily diets.

如何阅读营养标签
多余的糖,大豆,精制谷物和工业种子油可以在营养标签上隐藏在视线上。Istock / Alexskopje.

这可能听起来很简单,但事实是,跟随一个祖先饮食有时可能是困难的,除非你知道如何阅读营养标签。那是因为refined grains, excess sugars, seed oils, and soy—dangerous post-Paleolithic toxins—often hide in plain sight, under sneaky and scientific names or within other unexpected ingredients. What’s more, processed foods—including some marketed as “health” foods—typically contain food additives that may also be harmful to health.

But you have to know what these offending substances are, and where they lurk, in order to avoid them. That’s why I’ve written this article: so that you can become a savvier grocery shopper and leave health-harming foods on the shelf and out of your cart.

酱油, added sugar, refined grains, and industrial seed oils are hard to avoid—especially when they show up on a nutrition label under another name. Find out how to decipher what’s really in your food. #nutrition #paleo #chriskresser

不要被愚弄:这里是如何阅读营养标签

不言而喻,营养标签可以告诉你一个很多关于食物是否是营养丰富的事情。对你来说是好还是坏的?大多数人首先看一个产品必威星际争霸营养事实标签,这拼出了多少份食物(包括单次服务的大小),nutrients it contains,和what percentage of the Recommended Daily Value (according to federal health guidelines) of those nutrients the product provides. (Note:While these federal guidelines are meant to be helpful, sometimes they fall short of being complete, as with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for a number of essential vitamins and minerals. For more on this, see my article “什么是营养密度,为什么重要?“)当然,这些信息在帮助您决定是否享受或拒绝食物方面非常有价值。但对于本文,我想专注于该面板下面通常在该面板下方找到的内容:成分列表。

根据美国食品和药物管理局(FDA),食品制造商必须在营养标签上列出所有成分,遵循以下规则和法规:(1)

  • 成分必须按降序列出,其中最多使用的数量。
  • 任何FDA批准的颜色添加剂的名称,如蓝色第1或黄色第5号,必须包括在标签上。
  • Certain ingredients can be listed collectively under umbrella terms like “spices,” “flavors,” “artificial flavoring,” and “artificial colors” (those colors exempt from FDA approval).
  • 如果食物(除了某些鸡蛋产品,酒精,家禽和大多数肉类之外)含有八种主要必威星际争霸食物过敏原(牛奶,鸡蛋,翅片鱼,贝类,树螺母,花生,小麦,大豆)中的一种,则必须包括在内在标签上。(2)如果集体颜色,味道或香料含有过敏成分,则应单独列出该成分。
请注意这些规则中引用的例子?They mostly encompass unnatural items, nothing our Paleolithic ancestors would have consumed.如果您发现落入颜色添加剂,过敏原或人为任何东西类别的成分,请放下包含它们的产品:这不是您的祖先饮食朋友。必威星际争霸

也就是说,在健康和营养社区内,思想变化了扫描成分列表的最佳方法,以及哪些特定成分构成健康/可接受的食物。以下是一些流行的方法:

Five Ingredients or Less

In his book食物规则,迈克尔博林写道,“避免含有超过五种成分的食品。”必威星际争霸其他格言包括:不要吃含有成分的食物,你不能发表的成分或你的祖母不会被识别为食物。(3,4,5)

前三名

Popular health sites suggest scanning the first three ingredients on a label, since they make up the largest part of that food, and avoiding buying the product if refined grains, sugar, or seed oils are in the top three. Other wisdom suggests buying a product only if the first three ingredients are whole foods. (6)

两条线,很好

You may have also heard the advice to avoid buying any product with an ingredient list longer than two, or sometimes three, lines. (7)

As Pollan himself says, though, the number you adopt for how many ingredients or lines you’re willing to accept is arbitrary. The take-home message to distill from all of these “rules” is one you already know; I consistently share it here, in my books, and with my patients:foroptimal health, eat real, fresh, whole, unpackaged foods and avoid processed foods, particularly highly processed foods, as much as possible. Processed foods are likely to contain the ingredients that promote disease, not health.

Of course, I know it’s not realistic for you to prepare every single meal or snack from scratch. What’s more, even some of the real foods I recommend as part of a healthy ancestral diet—such as butter or椰奶,以及坚果,肉棒等Paleo snacks—come in a package with a label. So, the next best thing to eating all whole foods all the time is to eat mostly whole foods and the healthiest packaged options you can find. Keep reading for tips on ensuring you make the best choices, in part through sleuthing out risky ingredients. Before you know it, you’ll be a label expert.

Understanding each and every ingredient on a nutrition label isn’t easy. In fact, embarking on any new health journey can often feel overwhelming, but having the support of a health coach can help. Health coaches are uniquely positioned to help others as they adopt new diets or lifestyles. They understand human behavior and motivation and know how to empower their clients to better their health. Their work is life-changing, which is why health coaches are at the forefront of the fight against chronic disease.

You can learn the skills you need to become a health coach with the适应健康教练培训计划。我们的专业教师核心核心教练技巧,行为改变,目标设置,励志面试,谨慎,功能健康等等。

点击此处了解有关适应健康教练培训计划的更多信息

天启的四个骑士:他们对健康的意思

我同意你想要避免含有包装食物的流行智慧谷粒,,和工业种子油- 只要他们被列为标签上的前三种成分之一......但是如果他们全部列出。我经常叫这三种成分“三骑兵的天启。“但这包中真的有一个第四个骑手:酱油我已经广泛写了关于为什么这四种膳食毒素是因为今天的许多人责备这么多人超重,病假和痛苦。分享众多原因中的一些:

谷物可以导致肥胖,糖尿病和其他疾病

Gluten, which is present in wheat and other commonly eaten cereal grains, damages the intestine and makes it leaky. Researchers now believe that a泄漏的肠道是肥胖,糖尿病和自身免疫疾病等条件的主要危险因素之一。(8,9)乳糜泻.麸质不耐受与慢性疾病有关。(10) In general, the absence of谷粒和refined carbohydrates在亨特收集群中,群体令人难以置信的西方疾病发生率。

种子油不利于最佳健康

工业种子油在化学上精制,漂白和消毒,以适合人类消费,这应该告诉您一些关于他们对健康的影响。它们可能是西式化饮食的不平衡特征的最重要的贡献者,从而在慢性炎症疾病中发挥着重要作用。(13) What’s more, the repeated heating of industrial seed oils depletes vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, while inducing the formation of free radicals that cause oxidative stress and damage DNA, proteins, and lipids throughout the body, explaining their connection to high blood pressure, heart disease, and intestinal and liver damage. (14,15,16)

过量的糖具有与慢性条件的广泛链接

糖研究表明添加的糖的高摄入量造成了许多健康问题,包括肠道脱泻,免疫功能下降,免疫功能下降,癌症和神经变性的风险增加。高果糖玉米糖浆已与非酒精性脂肪肝病,哮喘和女性生殖问题有关。必威星际争霸(17,18,19)

大豆可以破坏内分泌功能,特别是如果你是一个女人

正如我以前共享,大豆植物雌激素破坏内分泌功能,具有潜力引起不孕症和促进成年女性的乳腺癌。而且,大豆可以刺激雌激素依赖性肿瘤的生长,并导致甲状腺问题,特别是在其他健康问题中。

Hiding in Plain Sight: The Aliases You Need to Know

The main disguises used by each of the “four horsemen”? Sneaky names and tricky incarnations. They can also be ingredientsan item on the ingredient list.

A Grain by Any Other Name

如果你只是为了望出来wheat,玉米, or白饭在标签上,你会错过其他谷物以避免。除了那些,检查标签barley, sorghum, oats, rye, millet, spelt, farro, semolina, teff, and graham, and flours made from these grains。也:

Decipher the Code Words

Malt是一种发芽和干燥的谷物谷物,通常是大麦。在标签上寻找麦芽,麦芽提取物,麦芽糖浆,麦芽调味和麦芽醋。

麦芽糊精,通常在肉汤立方体中发现的添加剂可以由玉米,米,马铃薯淀粉或小麦制成。

是汤精明

Although I highly recommend骨肉汤,仔细阅读包装的股票和汤基地的标签,因为它们可以包含面粉。

酱油非男性

Tofu isn’t the only source of soy. When it comes to processed foods, soy is everywhere. In fact, Americans now get almost 20 percent of their calories from soybean oil, precisely because it’s so rampant in packaged products. (20)避免与“大豆”一词的任何成分,包括:

  • 酱油protein isolate
  • 酱油flour
  • 豆油
  • 酱油milk
  • 酱油sauce (most brands are also made with wheat)
  • 酱油lecithin(尽管它可能少于其他大豆迭代)

酱油can also be called大豆,植物蛋白,纹理植物蛋白(TVP)或奥卡拉(大豆纸浆)

糖的许多阶段名称

可能有more than 60 different names for sugar。其中一些可能是熟悉的(如高果糖玉米糖浆),而其他人可能听起来像它们属于化学套装(乙醇麦芽糖)而不是你的食物。别名采样以避免:

  • 蔗糖(AKA表糖,由葡萄糖和果糖组成)
  • 果糖/高果糖玉米糖浆(HFC)
  • 葡萄糖/葡萄糖糖浆
  • 大麦麦芽/大麦麦芽糖浆(也是谷物来源;见上文)
  • Dextrose
  • Maltose (also a malt sugar/grain source)
  • 米糖浆(另一粒谷物)
  • 甘蔗汁/蒸发的甘蔗汁/脱水甘蔗晶体
  • 玉米糖浆/玉米糖浆固体(YEP,也是一粒谷物!)
  • 麦芽醇
  • Demerara
  • 浸渍酶

有时,制造商将试图通过声称他们的产品来解决消费者的担忧“必威星际争霸自然加糖。“这听起来没关系,直到你认为这只是意味着甜味不是人造化学甜味剂(例如,阿斯巴甜)的结果,而是基于谷物或甘蔗的植物。但它仍然是你的身体不需要多余的糖,即使是“有机”甘蔗!

但是,有的糖来源that are acceptable in an ancestral diet:

  • 甜叶菊
  • Monk fruit
  • 蜜糖

大量的科学证据表明我们应该尽量减少我们的消费refined sugar,高果糖玉米糖浆,和人造甜味剂越多越好。但是,这并不意味着我们应该害怕天然糖in whole, real foods, like fruits and sweet potatoes.

虽然产品的营养事必威星际争霸实面板列出了总糖含量,但很难知道该数字中的多少来自添加的糖,而那些自然发生的糖。到2021年,“添加的糖”措辞将是营养事实面板中所需的生产线;该FDA已启动修订后的标签系统(有些包已经反映了新的法规)。尽管如此,了解隐藏的糖可能潜伏的地方很重要,这就是为什么你需要仔细阅读糖的其他名字和阅读成分。

蛇油

虽然石油比糖更容易找到(你应该看到“油,”毕竟),如果你吃完食物,很重要的是要知道你可能比你想象的要高得多。工业种子油普遍存在,因此您可以从头到尾阅读成分列表。我在谈论哪种油?不是橄榄油或椰子油,但是:

  • 油菜/油菜籽
  • 玉米
  • 棉籽
  • 大豆(也是大豆的来源)
  • Sunflower
  • Safflower
  • 花生

请注意,许多次特定的油不会被命名为通用的“植物油”。这几乎总是表示精制的种子油。特别是对于任何“部分氢化”的油,因为这些是人工反式脂肪的来源,已经显示出增加癌症,心脏病,肥胖症和其他炎症条件的风险 - 即使在相对较低的剂量上也是如此。(21尽管FDA已经确定那t these oils are not safe for consumption and has barred manufacturers from using them in their products, extended compliance dates mean some products containing these oils cold be on shelves for several more years. (22) If a product contains an oil described as “expeller-pressed” or “cold-pressed,” it means that heat and chemical solvents haven’t been used in its processing. Although they’re better choices than highly processed seed oils in that aspect, health issues still remain, and I advise avoiding these types of oils as well.

Beyond the Four Horsemen: “Paleo” Food Additives to Avoid?

Even processed “health” foods, including some Paleo-friendly products, contain additives that wouldn’t pass the no-ingredients-you-can’t-pronounce rule.

In general, gums used to thicken or stabilize almond milk and coconut milk, such as瓜尔牙龈, gellan gum, andxanthan gum,可以造成一些消化困扰,我建议你避开他们的时候,特别是如果你已经处理了消化问题。但如果您确实消耗少量,则不要担心,因为这些口香糖中的任何一个都非常不可能造成伤害。

You may want to be a bit more wary of角叉菜胶, an additive extracted from red algae also often used in non-dairy milks. Carrageenan has produced intestinal damage in some animal studies, although it has been frequently portrayed as significantly more harmful than what is supported by available evidence.

如果您对这些添加剂有任何疑虑,制作自己的纯牛奶要么椰奶很容易做到。

Overwhelmed? Consider Hiring a Health Coach

我在这里弥补了很多,我知道它可能会令人恐惧,因为你必须知道每一个不健康的成分,别名以及它隐藏的地方。如果你正在进行饮食的旅程,与健康教练合作可能是一个很好的选择。他们可以分享更多的提示和技巧来阅读标签,并帮助您更好地了解广泛的营养原则,以便您可以满足和维护您的健康目标。学习更多关于健康教练

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加入谈话

  1. One thing you will not find on the label would be microbial enzymes. These are the products of synthetic biology (using genetic manipulation) that are being silently introduced into foods as “food processing aids” and therefore they are not labeled. Because these enzymes become catalytically inert when exposed to heat during processing they are considered GRAS (generally recognized as safe), but they still leave a molecular trace behind. Microbial transglutaminase, for example, is used in meat, dairy, and baked goods (including gluten free baked goods) as a kind of “glue” that binds proteins together for better mouth feel and structure. It is suspected, however, of not only being cross-reactive with gluten but may even be an environmental trigger for the genetic expression of Celiac Disease. About 30% of the general population carry the genetic markers for CD and this is a lot of people to put at risk. But the introduction of these novel substances rest on industry self-regulation with the presentation of their self-affirming research demonstrating “no harm.” I am currently trying to come up with guidelines for consumers who wish to avoid exposure but am having a really hard time coming up with definitive answers. It would be so helpful to know definitively if the organic labeling law disallows the use of these substances but I don’t know where to find out if this is indeed the case. If anyone here has suggestions of where to look please let me know! I checked the box to receive notification of follow up comments. If you are interested in research on this question, you can look here:https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fped.2018.00389/full

  2. 没有关于大豆雌激素和乳腺癌的冲突研究?不要将“产量”大豆雌激素码头降低到受体中,越来越高的“产量”雌激素正在寻找,因此阻止毒性的乳腺癌?我认为其他国家的亚洲女性乳腺癌的较低率是其证据的一部分。

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